QUANTUM SPACE ELEMENTS (QSE)
(This is a temporary version. An
update will soon be released)
Space is discontinuous. It breaks down to
indivisible space quanta; the Space Elements (S.E.)
Space Elements are stationary. They
accommodate and transfer information. We traditionally name this information
"our physical universe".
Saturation: Each space element can accommodate
only a finite amount of information. It then becomes saturated.
Inefficiency: The process of accommodating and
transferring information between space elements is a mechanism. Like every
mechanism the process of information transfer is not absolutely efficient.
This means that it can only be performed for a very large but finite number
Time (ÄÔ): Time is the rate of change of
space elements. Information transfer is not instant. ÄÔ is required. This is the time necessary for any space element to
change its state according to the information it receives or transfers. Rate
of change relates to saturation. Heavily saturated S.E. "resist"
further information because of increased ÄÔ. Fully saturated S.E. are not capable of accepting additional information.
Trace: Because of inefficiency, each
repetition leaves a footprint on each S.E. This is trace. Superposition of
all traces within the S.E. grid results in increased cosmic saturation. ÄÔ increases with age. The mechanism deteriorates.
A rain cloud is a well-defined shape in the
sky. This shape is considered to be the border between "cloud" and
"clear sky". This is because the naked eye cannot detect humidity
unless the air is fully saturated and thus looks like a cloud. Taking a
photograph using a special lens capturing humidity levels, the cloud would
look considerably larger and would extend away from the well-defined finite
shape. Humidity saturation levels would diminish with distance.
Every massive body is a cloud of information
travelling through the stationary quantum space grid. This information cloud
is not confined within the boundaries we observe or detect as mass, but
extends to space elements away from the main body. Those space elements carry
information directly related to the main body. We call this information
gravity. The region extending away from the main body is a gravity cloud
bound to the main body. It is in fact an indistinguishable part of the main
body, and it follows the main body in its direction of travel. They are one
and the same. They cannot be separated in any way. They should be considered
as one entity. Information saturation diminishes with distance from the
main body meaning that gravity weakens with distance.
of gravity: As noted above,
information saturation is stronger in proximity to the main body and
dissipates with distance. This means that information is propagated more
slowly in proximity to the main body because of increased ÄT (higher saturation of space elements).
A secondary massive body (secondary region of
relevant information) travelling within the affected region experiences
increased ÄÔ in the parts of its own region
that are in proximity to the original mass. This introduces a resistance in
motion. Resistance is greater in proximity to the main body and diminishes
with distance. It follows the law of ÄÔ. Heavily saturated space elements
transfer information with increased ÄÔ (slower) compared to less
saturated ones. Because of this, the direction of travel shifts towards
the center of the main body (similar to a car braking on the left side wheels
only; the car shifts to the left). Exactly the same applies to the main body
in relation to the secondary body, and so the two information clouds move
towards each other. This means that any cloud of information with the
property of "mass" attracts any similar information cloud because
their saturation levels are being superimposed
positively. In common understanding, any two massive objects
attract one another. (Diagram Gravity 1)
Mass and gravity share the same fundamental
principal. They both introduce additional information into
the volume of space they occupy, and therefore the properties of space change
accordingly. Viewing space saturation in color, any massive body and its
surrounding gravitational field would share the same texture. Brightness
would diminish with distance away from the center of the massive body.
Travelling through the color would introduce a shift in direction towards the
bright center of the colorful region. (Gravity Diagram 2)
Matter: It is gravity itself that
is missing from the observed mass (rain cloud example; the missing humidity
surrounding the visible cloud remains invisible). Gravity is not passive; it
is active. It adds to the gravitational pull of the body it is linked to. It
is an extension of that body. In quantum space terms, the primary information
cloud (mass) and the secondary information cloud (gravity) are one unified
region of information. One entity. (Diagram)
Holes: Perhaps not as exotic as
the name suggests if they exist at all.
Black holes are fully saturated information
regions. As such, the space elements they occupy are unable to accommodate or
transfer additional information. Information is “trapped” within the region.
Time, as we understand it, breaks down because the rate of change is zero.
Any additional inflow results in expanding the boundary of the fully
Black holes are solid bodies that expand. They
are not dimensionless. They occupy an ever-expanding cloud of fully saturated
space elements. The "event horizon" is the boundary between space
and the solid body that remains hidden behind. Going through the event
horizon would result in a catastrophic crash upon the densest entity in the
Force is the result of saturation differential
in the propagation of information through the space elements grid.
This definition applies to all known forces.
Repulsion occurs in the reversed process whereby saturation levels superimpose negatively.
Saturation (and ÄÔ) decreases with proximity and
therefore repulsion occurs. (Diagram)
The above understanding of forces may seem to
demand motion or otherwise all processes would collapse. This sounds accurate
if thinking in terms of a non-quantum environment, but in quantum space all
that is necessary is that the universe remains actively resonating. As a
consequence, even at rest, every SE remains active and anticipates
interaction. This is further discussed later in this proposal.
Time can only be defined in terms of rate of
change. Time flow is not an absolute (primordial) cosmic constant. It relates
directly to the cosmic trace accumulation which defines the present state of
the mechanism. This is the superposition of all events that have ever
occurred since the beginning.
A helpful example is to think in terms of a
movie bobbin. If the frame rate of playback is eternally decelerated (not
necessarily linearly), the total playback time is not equal to the
total tape length, if the latter is calculated in terms of the frame rate
observed at the end of the movie (which reflects our present universal rate
of time flow – the present ÄÔ).
Consequently, a number of assumptions need to
the Universe: It cannot be
estimated using the present rate of change, because events have been
unfolding much faster in the past, especially shortly after the origin of the
cosmos. If this becomes part of the universe’s age estimate process, then the
numbers change significantly. The universe is considerably older than
estimated. Perhaps the first 100 seconds are equivalent to more than 100
billion years of today’s time flow rate. (Diagram)
Energy: Space is absolutely
stationary. Space elements do not move; it is only the information within
that travels through them in the form of space properties' propagation. The
expansion of space is an illusion resulting from misinterpreting the
It is time that
decelerates and not space that
This follows the main property ÄÔ of space elements. ÄÔ increases with age due to trace.
As light from distant galaxies travels, it encounters older space elements.
They are aged and saturated due to eternal superposition of cosmic
trace. Thus, all processes are decelerated. The oldest space elements are the
ones we occupy at present. It is our region
that creates the Doppler shift and not the region of the young galaxies we
observe in the distant past. Our present ÄÔ is longer than ÄÔ in the region and time when light was first emitted by those young
galaxies. Light travels more slowly in the present time than it was in the
past. The cosmological redshift relates to age, time and retardation, not to
distance, speed and acceleration. Space is not expanding. Light is
Note: This is not in reference to
"tired light". Energy is not being dissipated while travelling. It
is the medium (space) that changes state and deteriorates as a result of
cosmic trace. The inefficiency exists within the medium of motion which
negatively affects the propagation of motion, causing retardation.
As already mentioned, space elements are
absolutely stationary providing the reference grid for everything else to
exist within them.
Intuitively, quantum space elements can be
considered as a grid of isolated spherical cells. True quantum space geometry
is most probably a lot more complicated than this.
With the understanding that nothing exists
outside space elements, no distance is necessary between them. Space is in
fact clearly continuous. What defines the individuality of each space element
is time; its own rate of change.
Time may be described as a layer of resistance
(delay) in the propagation of information. This layer surrounds each space
element, defining its existence. Space geometry translates into time
Motion is propagation of information. There
are two types of motion:
(linear) motion: Information travels through successive
space elements, interacting with them, leaving trace. The total
transportation time is the sum of ÄÔ and CT of all space elements
CT is “conscious time”, i.e. the presence
within each SE, before information is propagated into the next SE. This is
what humans understand and refer to as “time”. The sum of all CT during
transport is what we understand as the “duration of travel”.
ÄÔ does not register on instruments or human intuition. ÄÔ only relates to time geometry.
motion is information propagation outside the SE grid and only
through time geometry as is defined by ÄÔ. Space elements remain unaffected.
In human terms and instrumentation records transport is instant. In
fact, duration of quantum travel is always equal to ÄÔ of the destination space element. Unlimited distances, even the
breadth of the entire universe, can be traveled in just one single ÄÔ. (Diagram)
Trace is spread evenly across the universe
through quantum motion. Every occurring event leaves trace which is
simultaneously shared across all space elements. The state of the mechanism
is flat throughout the grid.
A helpful (approximate) example is to imagine
rain drops falling on the sea. The added volume of water is shared throughout
the ocean without local fluctuations of water depth.
In traditional motion, speed is the rate of
propagation of information between adjacent space elements. This rate can be
defined in terms of CÔ. If the rate is slow, each space
element accommodates the traveling information for conscious time CTslow. If the rate is fast, the information is
accommodated for CTfast, where CTslow
> CTfast. Maximum speed is reached when CT=0.
At max speed, the traveler (traveling
information) experiences no distance since ÄÔ does not register. The traveler experiences this speed as infinite
and reaches any destination without any conscious time elapsing. Yet the true
duration of travel is NxÄÔ, where N is the number of space elements affected by the traveler. If
the traveler was unaware that space is static, he would translate this
experience as “contracting space”. However it was his conscious time CT that
The duration of travel may not register on the
traveler but it severely affects the overall “environment” by leaving trace
on all those affected space elements. Depending on the saturation density of
the traveling information, trace can be significant.
The above concept is discussed further in
the Quantum Relativity section.
In quantum motion, as mentioned before, speed
is irrelevant since only one ÄÔ elapses before any destination is
Understanding motion in quantum terms is not
an easy task. Motion cannot exist in quantum space; there can only be state
of presence and intention of motion. This realization introduces frequency.
Events occur in unison. All information is
absolutely still within the S.E. grid and propagates only in quantum steps
defined by the frequency of the universe. The frequency is defined by age;
the current state of the mechanism. Early universe resonated in considerably
higher frequency, as was mentioned earlier in considerations about time. ÄÔsaturation and conscious time CT are derivatives of the universe's
frequency ÄÔtrace. (Diagram)
energy: Quantum space elements
across the cosmos oscillate at the frequency of the universe anticipating
interaction with information propagating within their vicinity. The frequency
of oscillation (the present state of the mechanism) defines the currently
available vacuum energy. This is the underlying available energy source which
still allows all processes to run. Trace is the deterioration of this
frequency. It is the dissipation of vacuum energy invested in resolving all
events throughout cosmic evolution.
– Quantum Physics:
Every particle is a local cloud of
information. It occupies a large number of space elements since the S.E.
dimensions are of different order of magnitude. This means that even the
smallest particles extend over a vast number of space elements. The
primordial particles are the space elements themselves.
The properties of the information cloud of any
particle are locked.
Nothing can change within the cloud without affecting the entire cloud.
Change occurs simultaneously. This does not violate the law of ÄÔ. Change is not instant; it is only simultaneous. This is because CT
between space elements is zero. Conscious time does not exist outside space
elements, so information travels (and space element properties can change)
simultaneously across unlimited regions of S.E. through quantum motion. (Diagram)
Every occurring event changes the properties
of the space elements affected by that event. To understand an event it is
necessary either to compare the present state to its immediate past, or to
its immediate future. The change of state observed defines the event in
Comparing to the past is straightforward
because the past has already occurred, it has left its footprint, and
therefore its nature is deterministic. Comparing to the future is tricky
because the future involves uncertainty and is always probabilistic.
The consequence of the above realization is
that any single event can be at the same time either deterministic or
stochastic, depending on the observational method used for detection.
If the particle’s location information is
extracted upon the slit screen, then the patterns observed on the detection
screen are a reflection of the past state of this particle at the moment it
was passing through the slit, and as such, the observation upon the detection
screen is deterministic. If the location information is not extracted, then
the patterns on the detection screen are a reflection of the available future
choices of the particle at the moment it detects the slit screen. Since there
is choice, there is uncertainty. This uncertainty is observed upon the
In QSE terms, it must be reminded that the
particle does not exist. What is being observed is the propagation of space
properties through the quantum space grid and in quantized time. The
available options to each space element are being processed through ÄÔ as it becomes aware of the information it has just accommodated. The
result of this processing is the next occurring event. If at any given moment
(pulse) the relevant space elements are resolved by an external agent (the
particle detector at the slits), this action deprives them from choice and
forces upon them a single available option. Since there are no more choices,
the next event is deterministic. All the processing occurs in ÄÔ which is invisible to the apparatus and so it appears to be instant.
As it has already been discussed in this proposal, there is no instant action
in the universe. There exists undetected time ÄÔ.
To simplify, the reason behind the alternate
behavior of the particle is the fact that the choice is made by those who
execute the experiment to alter the experiment itself. There are two separate
experiments executed with modified conditions involved, and so incoherent
conclusions are observed.
Those two experimental results are not
possible to be observed simultaneously because this would require resolving
events through their past and their future at the same time. This is
forbidden by every theory, including the QSE theory.
There can be no conclusions unless some
indication of validity is experimentally observed. Proposed observational and
mathematical validation methods are discussed on the verification page.