QUANTUM SPACE ELEMENTS

 THEORY     VERIFICATION

 

QUANTUM SPACE ELEMENTS (QSE)

 

1. ASSUMPTIONS

i. Space is discontinuous. It breaks down to indivisible space quanta; the space elements. 

ii. Space elements are stationary. They accommodate and transfer information. 

iii. Each space element can accommodate only a finite amount of information. It then becomes saturated.

iv. Information transfer is not instant. Processing is required.

v. Processing is inefficient. It can be executed for a very large but finite number of repetitions.

 


2. CONSIDERATIONS

 

2.1 Time
Time is rate of change. Time flow is not a primordial cosmic constant. It relates both to local information densities (space saturation) and to the ageing of the universe (deterioration due to inefficiency).  Heavily saturated space elements "resist" further information because of increased processing time required. Fully saturated space elements are not capable of accepting additional information.

There are two dimensions of time; conscious time and processing time. Conscious time (CT) is experienced through life and recorded through instrumentation. Processing time (ΔΤ) is undetectable. The flow of time is absolute and can be defined as the sum of CT + ΔΤ.

Depending upon the properties of events, absolute time consists of different ratios between conscious and processing time. Since ΔΤ is undetectable, perception of time relates only to CT. Perceived time is therefore relative.

 

2.2 Frequency

Motion cannot exist in quantum space; there can only be state of presence and intention of motion. This realization introduces frequency.  
Information propagates in quantum steps defined by the frequency of the universe. Frequency is defined by age; the current state of the cosmos. Early universe resonated in considerably higher frequency because it had not suffered deterioration due to its own inefficiency. Processing time (ΔΤ) and conscious time (CT) follow the universe's frequency F. Time is therefore quantized.

 

2.3 Geometry
Space elements are absolutely stationary providing the reference grid for information to exist within them. Nothing exists outside space elements and no distance is necessary between them. Space is in fact clearly continuous. What defines the individuality of each space element is time; its own rate of change.
Quantized time may be described as a layer of resistance (delay) in the propagation of information. This layer surrounds each space element, defining its existence. Space geometry translates into time geometry.

 

 

3. CONSEQUENCES 

Considering events in terms of quantized information propagating in quantized time through quantum space produces the following consequences:

 

3.1 Quantum Relativity (Kinetics)

3.1.1 Relative motion 

Any sequence of events occurring in the universe demands transition time between them, or otherwise instantaneous action (communication) is introduced. This would be in violation of everything science and human intuition stands for. Therefore ΔΤ is required to protect what is already known or feels to be real.

In a quantum space environment the mechanics of motion are different than in space-time continuum. Quantum mechanics demands that all motion occurs in pulses since time and space are quantized. The following diagram introduces a simplified approach to motion in a quantum space context, which can be described as “state of presence” (CT) and “intention of motion” (ΔΤ).

Pulses 1, 3, & 5 are conscious time, while pulses 2 & 4 are ΔΤ. The traveler is only conscious of CΤ, and unaware of ΔΤ.  Therefore, within a total universal time (absolute time) of 5 pulses, only 3 pulses registered in the traveler’s consciousness and physical state.

The previous representation is greatly simplified because it displays motion as 1-on-1 type. In reality, a slow moving traveler would remain stationary within a space element for a large number of pulses before moving to the next. A fast moving traveler would remain within each SE for a smaller number of pulses.

 

The following is a similar diagram condensing this type of motion in a more synoptic graphical format. Information named “X” travels in slow speed through successive space elements from left to right:

Total (absolute) time = CT +ΔΤ = 4+1+4+1+4+1+4 = 19 pulses

Conscious time (CT) = 4x4 = 16 pulses

Undetected time (ΔΤ) = 1+1+1 = 3 pulses

Therefore, traveler “X” has aged 16/19 pulses.

 

A faster moving traveler “Y” experiences the same absolute time of 19 pulses as follows:

Total (absolute) time = CT +ΔΤ = 2+1+2+1+2+1+2+1+2+1+2 +1 = 19 pulses

Conscious time (CT):  2x6 + 1 = 13 pulses

Undetected time (ΔΤ) : 1+1+1+1+1+1 = 6 pulses

Therefore, traveler “Y” has aged 13/19 pulses.

 

Even though the total time is constant at 19 pulses, travelers at different speeds register different conscious time. If both travelers had synchronized clocks at the point of origin, then at t=19 the clock of the faster moving traveler would have registered slower time flow.

 

This is a direct consequence of disallowing instant transition between any two events with the introduction of an additional time dimension.

 

The previous examples are obviously not aligned with human intuition. The main reason is the difference in order of magnitude. Conscious time is what we experience through life. It is largely macroscopic. Transition time (ΔΤ) is always microscopic; in fact probably of an order of magnitude even smaller than this. Using real numbers, the difference in ageing between the travelers is infinitesimal. Thinking in terms of human perception, if conscious time was in seconds, ΔΤ would be in picoseconds or much less. In addition, ΔΤ is constant in a homogeneous medium (for example in vacuum). It does not fluctuate. Therefore the effect of motion in the perception of time flow is only relevant when CT and ΔΤ are of comparable magnitude. This can only occur at such high speed where CT is forced to diminish into a magnitude comparable to ΔΤ.

This means that ΔΤ, the introduced transition time between events (the new time dimension), is of such microscopic order of magnitude that only becomes apparent in the special condition of events occurring at a frequency which is fast enough to be comparable to the universe’s frequency. This statement treats motion as a periodic event repeating itself between successive space elements as they accommodate and transfer the traveling information.

 

Graphically separating the two time dimensions produces the following equivalent diagrams:

This graphical representation further clarifies the concept of different time dimensions and the effect of motion in the perception of time. This is not only relevant to human intuition, but it also applies to everything that exists within any specific reference frame of motion. All observations, instrumentation, estimates, calculations, labs, apparatuses and detectors, they all function within their own CT.

 

The diagram below displays the perception of time and space by travelers at various speeds in respect to the absolute frame of reference (the QSE grid), and also in respect to each other. This diagram plots velocity over distance travelled, and so time is inverted (1/t).

The Absolute Time Line is the perception of time flow and distance travelled at various velocities, if all dimensions of time are considered (CT+ΔΤ). The Conscious Time Line is the perception of time flow and distance travelled at various velocities, if only CT is considered (human perception and instrumentation records).

Perception of time and distance changes with velocity because ΔT becomes increasingly relevant at high velocities. Since ΔΤ remains undetected, every motion within the SE grid introduces its own reference frame which in turn needs to be consistent with every other reference frame, because there is an invisible common ground that bonds them all together; the absolute time flow in the absolute reference frame of the quantum space elements grid. As a result, the illusion of space-time relativity manifests itself at those velocities as a pseudo-geometric requirement. Such a requirement, however, is a derivative of some other, hidden, primordial process. The hidden time dimension ΔΤ.  Had this undetected processing time been introduced within calculations then space-time would have always been absolute. The mathematical precision of all experiments and observations of the past 100+ years is sound, but the unrealistic assumption of light speed invariance is unnecessary.

Accordingly, the one-way speed of light is directly related to the observer's CT. Had we been able to measure one-way light speed, it would have not been invariant of Earth's motion and rotation through space. The actual observed light speed of 300,000 km/sec is the two-way light speed which entirely ignores the effect of CΤ differential since this is by definition cancelled out by the experiments themselves.

 

3.1.2 Maximum speed

As was mentioned earlier within the text, increased speed is faster rate of change. At increased speed information travels through more space elements within the same absolute time and therefore repetition of the quantum mechanism of motion is faster (state of presence / intention of motion); hence speed translates into frequency.

It is the frequency of the universe which defines the maximum allowed speed of propagation. Frequency of events can never be faster than the frequency of the universe. This is the fundamental quantum space property which limits the consequences of any event within a finite range away from the source as time propagates.

 

3.1.3 Mass and limitations on speed

It has already been discussed that the rate of change of space elements is proportional to the density of the travelling information; it depends on the level of information saturation within.

A direct result of the above is that information with the property we understand as mass can never travel at maximum speed because the space elements affected cannot propagate this information at the frequency of the universe. Saturation introduced by the density of the travelling information (mass), forces those SE to oscillate (receive/transfer information) always at lower frequency than that of the universe. It would require a theoretical infinite energy input to force those SE at maximum oscillation frequency.

 

 

3.2. Quantum Gravity (Potential)
A rain cloud is a well-defined shape in the sky. This shape is considered to be the border between "cloud" and "clear sky". This is because the naked eye cannot detect humidity unless the air is fully saturated and thus looks like a cloud. Taking a photograph using a special lens capturing humidity levels, the cloud would look considerably larger and would extend away from the well-defined finite shape. Humidity saturation levels would diminish with distance.

Every massive body is a cloud of information travelling through the stationary quantum space grid. This information cloud is not confined within the boundaries observed or detected as mass, but extends to space elements away from the main body. Those space elements carry information directly linked to the main body. We call this information gravity. The region extending away from the main body is a gravity cloud bound to the main body. It is in fact an indistinguishable part of the main body, and it follows the main body in its direction of travel. They are one and the same. They cannot be separated in any way. They should be considered as one entity.  Information saturation diminishes with distance from the main body meaning that gravity weakens with distance.
 

3.2.1 Mechanism of gravity

As noted above, information saturation is denser in proximity to the main body and dissipates with distance. Increased saturation demands more processing time for events to be resolved. Time is absolute and so further processing manifests as slower rate of change. The ratio of CT and ΔΤ within absolute time is affected. Processing time (ΔΤ) diminishes within regions of increased saturation. This means that information is propagated more slowly in proximity to the main body. Macroscopically, this is observed as slower time flow relating to stronger gravitational fields.

The force of gravity is a derivative of the above condition and is discussed in the Thermodynamics section later on.

 

3.2.2 Dark Matter

It is gravity itself that is missing from the observed mass (rain cloud example; the missing humidity surrounding the visible cloud remains invisible). Gravity is not passive; it is active. It adds to the gravitational pull of the body it is linked to. It is an extension of that body. Mass and gravity share the same fundamental principal. They both introduce additional information into the volume of space they occupy, and therefore the properties of space change accordingly. As mentioned earlier, the primary information cloud (mass) and the secondary information cloud (gravity) are one unified region of information. One entity.

The concept of active fields is discussed further in the Thermodynamics section later on.

3.2.3 Black Holes

Perhaps not as exotic as the name suggests, if they exist at all. Black holes are fully saturated information regions. As such, the space elements they occupy are unable to accommodate or transfer additional information. Information is “trapped” within the region. Time, as we understand it, breaks down because rate of change is zero. Processing time ΔΤ does not exist within a fully saturated region and therefore no events materialize. Any additional inflow results in expanding the boundary of the fully saturated region. Black holes are solid bodies that expand. They are not dimensionless. They occupy an ever-expanding cloud of fully saturated space elements. The "event horizon" is the boundary between space and the solid body that remains hidden behind. Going through the event horizon would result in a catastrophic crash upon the densest entity in the universe.

 

 

3.3 Retardation

3.3.1 Vacuum energy

Quantum space elements across the cosmos oscillate at the frequency of the universe anticipating interaction with information propagating within their vicinity. The frequency of oscillation defines the currently available vacuum energy. This is the underlying available energy source which still allows all processes to run. The dissipation of vacuum energy has been the energy invested in resolving all events throughout cosmic evolution. This process causes retardation in the cosmic time flow.

 

3.3.2 Age of the Universe

Cosmic ageing is the deterioration of this frequency. It cannot be estimated using the present rate of change because events have been unfolding much faster in the past, especially shortly after the origin of the cosmos. If retardation becomes part of the universe’s age estimate process, then the numbers change significantly. The universe is considerably older than estimated. Perhaps the first 100 seconds are equivalent to more than 100 billion years of today’s time flow rate.
 
3.3.3 Dark Energy

Space is absolutely stationary. Space elements do not move; it is only the information within that travels through them in the form of space properties' propagation. The expansion of space is an illusion resulting from misinterpreting the cosmological redshift. It is time that decelerates and not space that accelerates.
As light from distant galaxies travels, it encounters older space elements. They are aged and all processes are decelerated. The oldest space elements are the ones we occupy at present. It is our region that creates the Doppler shift and not the region of the young galaxies we observe in the distant past. Our present frequency has deteriorated. Light travels more slowly in the present time than it was in the past. The cosmological redshift relates to age, time and retardation, not to distance, speed and acceleration. Space is not expanding. Light is decelerating.

 
Note: This is not in reference to "tired light". Energy is not being dissipated while travelling. It is the medium (space) that changes state and deteriorates as a result of cosmic ageing. The inefficiency exists within the medium of motion which negatively affects the propagation of motion, causing retardation.

 
 

3.4 Particles

Every particle is a local cloud of information. It occupies a large number of space elements since the S.E. dimensions are of different order of magnitude. This means that even the smallest particles extend over a vast number of space elements. The primordial particles are the space elements themselves.
 The properties of the information cloud of any particle are locked. Nothing can change within the cloud without affecting the entire cloud. Change occurs simultaneously. This does not violate the law of ΔΤ. Change is not instant; it is only simultaneous. This is because CT between space elements is zero. Conscious time does not exist outside space elements, so information travels (and space element properties can change) simultaneously across unlimited regions of S.E. through a different type of motion which affects only time geometry and not the space elements grid. (Diagram 1)  (Diagram 2)
 
3.4.1.Duality
Every occurring event changes the properties of the space elements affected by that event. To understand an event it is necessary either to compare the present state to its immediate past, or to its immediate future. The change of state observed defines the event in question. Comparing to the past is straightforward because the past has already occurred, it has left its footprint, and therefore its nature is deterministic. Comparing to the future is tricky because the future allows for choice and so it involves uncertainty. It is always probabilistic and therefore stochastic. The consequence of this realization is that any single event can be at the same time either deterministic or stochastic, depending on the observational method used for detection.

3.4.2 Double slit experiment. 
If the particle’s location information is extracted upon the slit screen, then the patterns observed on the detection screen are a reflection of the state of this particle immediately after it had executed processing of its available choices (after executing ΔΤ), and as such, the observation upon the detection screen is deterministic. If the location information is not extracted, then the patterns on the detection screen are a reflection of the available future choices of the particle at the moment it detected the slit screen (before executing ΔΤ). Since there is choice, there is uncertainty. This uncertainty is observed upon the screen. (Diagram)
 
In QSE terms, it must be reminded that the particle does not exist. What is being observed is the propagation of space properties through the quantum space grid and in quantized time. The available options to each space element are being processed through ΔΤ as it becomes aware of the information it has just accommodated. The result of this processing is the next occurring event. If at any given moment (pulse) the relevant space elements are resolved by an external agent (the particle detector at the slits), this action deprives them from choice and forces upon them a single available option. Since there are no more choices, the next event is deterministic. All the processing occurs in ΔΤ which is invisible to the apparatus and so it appears to be instant. As it has already been discussed in this proposal, there is no instant action in the universe. There exists undetected time ΔΤ.
 
To simplify, the reason behind the alternate behavior of the particle is the fact that the choice is made by those who execute the experiment to alter the experiment itself. There are two separate experiments executed with modified conditions involved, and so incoherent conclusions are observed.
 
Those two experimental results are not possible to be observed simultaneously because this would require resolving events through their past and their future at the same time. This is forbidden by every theory, including the QSE theory.

 

3.5 Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the mechanics of cosmic evolution.

 

3.5.1 Space interaction mechanics

During the state of vacuum individual space elements interacted only within their own vicinity. They were unaware of the rest of the universe and only communicated locally. Out of the creation event, the manifestation of initially simple blocks of information with locked properties (first generation particles) allowed for greatly enhanced efficiency by diminishing the total required processing time (and therefore the necessary energy) to resolve the universe’s events. Instead of a large number of individual interactions between space elements, a considerably smaller number of events between locked information blocks had to be processed. (Diagram)

This event of enhanced efficiency propagated throughout the cosmos and ignited the creation event. As the evolution of the cosmos progressed, the frequency of the universe deteriorated by continuously supplying processing energy into the system. Retardation introduced growing stability. This allowed for more complex information blocks to develop (next generation particles), which introduced further efficiency.

This pattern repeated itself until information within space elements eventually condensed into what we refer to as massive particles. Such information clouds were forced to break away from typical behavior because their reach extended beyond their immediate vicinity through their secondary property; gravity. As such, vast regions of space acquired pre-defined properties directly linked to their hosts, allowing for advanced efficiency in space interactions within those regions.

At this stage space elements were no longer required to interact individually with each other. One cosmic language had developed and blocks of information interacted in efficiency, similar to words and phrases used in a human language. The universe’s frequency had deteriorated enough to allow for vacuum to be stable and for complex macroscopic structures to materialize through superposition of microscopic information blocks (massive particles).

 

3.5.2 Mechanics of creation

At the origin of the cosmos space elements possessed no information. The universe resonated in maximum frequency because it had no content and all available energy was directed into oscillation. Every single pulse was invested in processing an absence of events in a severely under-saturated environment. Similar to a pump over revving in an empty tank and producing no work, space was at its most inefficient and unstable state (vacuum).

Within countless perturbations of vacuum interactions one symmetric event of incremental efficiency was spontaneously achieved (the first generation radiation particle). As such, its properties prevailed over those of the entire vacuum universe and propagated globally igniting the creation event. This brought the entire visible universe into existence. It was a cold start producing very little energy per unit volume. The temperature of birth was very similar to today's observed cosmic microwave background radiation because space does not expand and so it does not cool significantly. The structure of this cosmic event relates to patterns of thermodynamic efficiency propagation. This structure is still visible today in the form of large scale baryonic distribution observed as galaxy filaments. This type of structure is typical and commonly observed as the density distribution of thermodynamic efficiency if propagated within a near-perfectly (but not absolutely) homogenous medium.

 

3.5.3 Consequences

3.5.3.1 Law of efficiency

The natural flow of events is always the one which demands less processing time. This is universal and can be described as the law of efficiency.

 

3.5.3.2 Inertia

Fields, the secondary information clouds of complex particles, act like decelerating canopies. They force their hosts out of maximum oscillation and away from light speed. This is because field properties extend out from the host and introduce a secondary information cloud linked directly back into the host. This adds complexity in processing events and therefore the host's motion breaks out of cosmic frequency (out of light speed) since additional processing time is required to resolve events. Demand for processing time is against the law of efficiency and as such it is manifested as resistance to any change of state in order to preserve energy (processing time). This is understood as inertia.

 

3.5.3.3 Mass and Charge

Hosts with secondary information clouds (fields) display similar properties because of inertia forced upon them. Mass and charge are of similar nature because of their fields. Distinction between charge and mass is the consequence of the quantitative differences in the properties of their respective fields.

 

3.5.4 Local thermodynamics

A local event is a change of state of a closed system within a timeframe that does not involve cosmic frequency deterioration.

 

In terms of localized interactions the same principle applies. The natural flow of events is always the one which demands less processing time and therefore less energy dissipation between successive states of presence. This principle manifests itself as either deceleration of events in kinetics (for example the direction of heat flow) or condensation of information in potential (for example the direction of gravitational flow). In all cases ΔΤ diminishes as the natural flow of events.

Another way of phrasing this would be that within a closed system and between two successive states of presence, the total available ΔΤ within the system diminishes (slower kinetics, increased potential). Since ΔΤ is the available energy for processing events, the usable energy within closed systems always diminishes.

 

3.5.5 Forces

One consequence is the direction and magnitude of forces.

The direction of any force vector is the one which – if followed – would lead into the optimum path of diminished ΔΤ. Attraction occurs if the information properties of the entities involved are superimposed positively. Repulsion occurs in negative superposition. (Diagram)

The magnitude of any force relates to the gradient of saturation differential within the region affected by the change of state, integrated per unit of volume if the saturation differential is non-linear or if the host or its field is irregular. This means that magnitude does not relate to the properties of the confined volume of space occupied by the host, but to the properties of the total region affected (host plus field). For example in gravity, a dense sphere experiences the same force as an inflated balloon of equal mass because their gravitational fields extend out to an equal volume in space and so the gravitational differential experienced by both affected regions is the same.

 

Forces are finite because fields extend out only to the point where space elements cannot detect further saturation differential. This is the region in space where information saturation linked to any host is no longer diminishing because it has reached the threshold of detectable differential. This threshold is a primordial property of space elements.

 

What is being suggested is that fundamental forces do not exist. They are our (human) interpretation of the natural flow of events in the cosmos which is governed by a single one law; the law of efficiency.

 

3.5.6 Inertial manipulation

Any host can travel at light speed if its properties are confined within the space elements occupied by that host. Whichever entity possesses a secondary information cloud (field), its speed is limited below light speed. If gravity (or EMF) would disengage from its host, then the host would lose its inertia, behave as being massless, and would be allowed (actually forced) to travel at the speed of light. (Animation)

 

 

4. CONCLUSIONS
There can be no conclusions unless some indication of validity is experimentally observed. Proposed observational and mathematical validation methods are discussed on the verification page.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This proposal was derived entirely from first principles. The author is not a physicist and he does not follow the evolution of modern science. The background used within the proposal originates from the following bibliography to which the author was exposed in the ‘90s.

 

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Einstein, Albert: On Humanism, A CITADEL PRESS BOOK/ CAROL PUBLISHING BOOK, New York, 1993.

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Gleick, James: GENIUS: Richard Feynman And Modern Physics, ABACUS, U.K., 1994.

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Weinberg, Steven: The First Three Minutes, BASIC BOOKS/ ADIVISION OF HARPER COLLINS PUBLISHERS, U.S.A., 1958.

Weinberg, Steven: Dreams Of A Final Theory, VINTAGE BOOKS/ A DIVISION OF RANDOM HOUSE INC, New York, 1993.

White, Michael & Gribbin, John: Einstein: A Life In Science, POCKET BOOKS, 1997.

Zeilick, Michael: Astronomy, JOHN WILEY AND SONS, 1991.

 

 

 

 

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Updated: February 12, 2018  

 

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